Policy Brief: Thriving Through Disruptions: Enhancing Supply Resilience with Effective Leadership

CARISCA investigated how Ghanaian pharmaceutical and healthcare organizations use transformational, contingent reward, and management-by-exception leadership styles to build supply resilience.


The following key findings emerged:

  • Organizations that utilize the contingent reward leadership style demonstrate the highest levels of supply resilience.
  • The transformational leadership approach was found to be the second-best driver of supply resilience.
  • Emphasis on contingent reward or transformational leadership benefits supply resilience more when organizations experience minimal supply disruptions.
  • In situations where supply disruptions are more frequent, a management-by-exception approach becomes more beneficial for supply resilience.
  • Organizations that are most resilient in their supply market increase their focus on transformational or contingent reward leadership when they are least dependent on suppliers and experience low supply disruptions.




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