CARISCA investigated how Ghanaian pharmaceutical and healthcare organizations use transformational, contingent reward, and management-by-exception leadership styles to build supply resilience.
The following key findings emerged:
- Organizations that utilize the contingent reward leadership style demonstrate the highest levels of supply resilience.
- The transformational leadership approach was found to be the second-best driver of supply resilience.
- Emphasis on contingent reward or transformational leadership benefits supply resilience more when organizations experience minimal supply disruptions.
- In situations where supply disruptions are more frequent, a management-by-exception approach becomes more beneficial for supply resilience.
- Organizations that are most resilient in their supply market increase their focus on transformational or contingent reward leadership when they are least dependent on suppliers and experience low supply disruptions.